Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Air Pollution, Water Pollution And Land Pollution

Air Pollution, Water Pollution And Land Pollution POLLUTION POLLUTION, the most commonly used word in our everyday life relating to the destruction of the natural air we breathe, the water we drink and the land we live on. No doubt the world is rapidly developing in every area possible which makes our lives much easier to live but on the other hand forgetting that we ourselves are destroying the natural resources. Many environmental researches have proved that it is because of the rapid growth in technology and other areas of growth that leads to a massive increase the growth of pollution. The unexpected pollution caused is mainly due to the human activities such as globalization, industrialization, and expanding increase in technology. This change is experienced not in a short term but in a long run, when it slowly started affecting people. Pollution can be formally defined as the undesirable and unintended contamination of the environment by human activities such as manufacturing, waste disposal, burning fossil fuels etc. The effect of pollution can be experienced in different ways. The most common ways of pollution are: Air pollution Water pollution Land pollution. AIR POLLUTION: This tern is not something new, it has been existing since he time of industrial revolution where in big chimneys are pointed out in the air which releases harmful gases into the atmosphere. This phenomenon has been increasing since then as the industries have been developing simultaneously. Today, air pollutants have shown a great effect on plantations, health and life, decreasing the enjoyment of living, rising medical costs, causes global warming and also causes the destruction of the ozone layer. One of the major causes of air pollution is the release of carbon di oxide into the atmosphere. This happens because of deforestation and fossil fuel burning. Sulfur dioxide is another main air polluter and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels. Sulfur dioxide is very harmful for the humans on high concentration and sulfur in the atmosphere is the main cause of acid rains. Chlorofluorocarbons also contribute to air pollution by reducing the ozone layer in the stratosphere. CFCs are produced by the burning of plastic foam items, leaking refrigerator equipment and spray cans. WATER POLLUTION: Contamination of available natural water by industrial wastes and other waste products can be defined as water pollution. Factors causing water pollution can be categorized into two different groups; Point sources and Non- point sources. Point sources are easy to identify and control. Some point sources of water pollution include waste products from factories, waste from sewage, waste from power plants , waste from underground coal mines and waste from oil wells. They are called point sources because these are the direct sources of water pollution and be reduced and monitored. Non- point sources are ambiguously defined and are much harder to control. The term non -point source encompasses a large range of sources like when rain and snow moves through the ground and picks up major pollutants and mover towards a major body of water, the runoff of fertilizers from farms animals and crop lands, air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth, and storm water drained from streets parking lots and lawns. LAND POLLUTION: The contamination of and with different kinds of wastes is called land pollution. The major causes of land pollution are construction, domestic waste , industrial waste and agriculture. The rising construction of building takes away the trees that takes away the homes of the animals living there. As there are more and more people inhabiting on our planet, the demand for food increases and the forests are cut down to make farm lands. In addition, Herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers and animal manure are washed into the soil and pollute it. Tons of domestic waste is dumped everyday from homes offices etc. They can be recycled or burnt in incinerators. There are still more waste machinery products such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot be recycled. Plastic factories, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposals, and large animal farms, all lead to land pollution. WAYS TO STOP POLLUTION: We can help to reduce global air pollution and climate change by few ways: Driving a car that gets at least 35 mpg, walking, biking, and using public transportation, using CFL bulbs over incandescent bulbs, buying only energy efficient appliances, recycling newspaper, aluminum, and others, planting trees, avoid purchasing products that contains CFCs, supporting much stricter clean air laws and enforcement of international treaties to reduce ozone depletion and slow global warming.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Islam and terrorism

Islam and terrorism INTRODUCTION When the terrorists attacked the United States on the morning of September 11, 2001, they set in motion a sequence of events that demonstrated unequivocally the power and influence ofterrorism. Less than two hours of unimaginable violence by nineteen terrorists led to repercussions felt around the world. Beyond the death and destruction that the terrorists caused more than 3,000 people were killed in the suicide attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. They also inflicted a deep psychological wound upon United States and the rest of the world.[1] Although the United States had experienced major terrorist attacks on its soil in the past, including the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, the September 11 attacks were beyond most peoples worst nightmare. Hijacked planes crashing into U.S. landmarks and live television coverage of the twin towers of the World Trade Center collapsing images that will likely be etched in ones mind forever. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, has revealed the roots of deep planetary contradictions that threaten the world community and indeed life itself on planet Earth. This act of unprecedented terror against thousands of innocent people ought, at last, to start humanity thinking about the stark incompatibility of modern achievements in the areas of scientific knowledge, human rights, and the establishment of human moral standards with ideological, nationalistic, or religiousfanaticism in any form. Lately, most of the terrorismseems to be about Islam, and it all seems to be the same. By all accounts the specter of jihadism looms large. Even if we suspend the belief for a moment and simply cast aside all those terrorist groups that clearly have nothing at all to do with the Islamic religionthe Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, the FARC in Colombia and the IRA in Ireland (to name but a few)we are still left with a slew of seemingly similar groups all motivated by and distorting Islam to suit their own ends[2]. The anatomy of propaganda The document found in a suitcase belonging to leading September 11, 2001, terrorist Muhammed Atta further strengthens this belief. The suitcase document is reproduced below and analysed in the ensuing paragraph: Pray during the previous night. Remember God frequently and with complete serenity. Visualize how you will respond if you get into trouble. Read verses of the Quran into your hands and rub them over your luggage, knife, and all your papers. Check your weapons, perform ablution before you leave your apartment, and remember God constantly while riding to the airport. Take courage and remember the rewards which God has promised for the martyrs. [3] The suitcase document is remarkable for four reasons. First, it embodies a classic ascetical strategy for applying formulaic principles to intended actions. Second, it shares much in common with repetitive techniques for self-hypnosis. Third, it bears a striking resemblance to mainstream traditions such as Catholicism in ascetical manuals like The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola or The Rule of St. Benedict that says, keep death daily before ones eyes. Whether or not such manuals threaten human freedom depends, of course, on the various contexts in which they have been presented. If in the wrong hands they can function as formulas and meditations both for indoctrination and for fighting holy wars. Fourth, the document from the suitcase directly connectsreligiousformulas and meditations with intentions to perpetrate mass murder. Practical checklists of objectives, terrifying in magnitude, are interwoven withreligiousstatements and then repeated and applied as mantras of s elf-indoctrination. Religion The Terrorists Best Weapon Whileterrorism even in the form of suicide attacks is not an Islamic phenomenon by definition, it cannot be ignored that the lions share of terrorist acts and the most devastating of them in recent years have been perpetrated in the name of Islam. This fact has sparked a fundamental debate both in the West and within the Muslim world regarding the link between these acts and the teachings of Islam. Most Western analysts are hesitant to identify such acts with the bona fide teachings of one of the worlds great religions and prefer to view them as a perversion of a religion that is essentially peace-loving and tolerant. Western leaders such as George W. Bush and Tony Blair have reiterated time and again that the war againstterrorismhas nothing to do with Islam. It is a war against evil[4]. Modern International Islamistterrorismis a natural offshoot of twentieth-century Islamic fundamentalism. The Islamic Movement emerged in the Arab world and British-ruled India as a response to the dismal state of Muslim society in those countries: social injustice, rejection of traditional mores, acceptance of foreign domination and culture. It perceives the malaise of modern Muslim societies as having strayed from the straight path (as-sirat al-mustaqim) and the solution to all ills in a return to the original mores of Islam. The problems addressed may be social or political: inequality, corruption, and oppression. But in traditional Islamand certainly in the worldview of the Islamic fundamentalistthere is no separation between the political and thereligious. Islam is, in essence, both religion and regime (din wa-dawla) and no area of human activity is outside its remit. Be the nature of the problem as it may, Islam is the solution.[5] The role of religion of Islam needs closer examination since the majority of terrorists of contemporary times are practising the religion of Islam. One of the enduring questions is what religion of Islam has to do with this. Put simply, does religion of Islam cause terrorism? Could these violent acts be the fault of religion-the result of a dark strain of religious thinking that leads to absolutism and violence? Is religion the problem or the victim? When one looks outside ones faith it is easier to blame religion. In the current climate of Muslim political violence, a significant sector of the American and European public assumes that Islam is part of the problem. The implication of this point of view is the unfortunate notion that the whole of Islam has supported acts of terrorism. Most Muslims refused to believe that fellow members of their faith could have been responsible for anything as atrocious as they September 11 attacks-and hence the popular conspiracy theory in the Muslim world that somehow Israeli secret police had plotted the terrible deed. Recently, however, Islam and fundamentalism are tied together so frequently in public conversation that the term has become a way of condemning all of Islam as a deviant branch of religion. But even in this case the use of the term fundamentalism allows for the defenders of other religions to take comfort in the notion that their kind of non-fundamentalist religion is exempt from violence or other extreme forms of public behaviour.[6] CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY Statement of Problem Terrorism has been a persistent feature of warfare and the international security environment for centuries. The magnitude and impact of terrorism has not remained consistent but rather has ebbed and flowed over the course of time. Today terrorism has emerged as one of the most significant international and regional security issues. The terror attacks of Sep 11 have brought about a lasting change in the way contemporary society perceives the religion of Islam. The perception of the people all across the globe has been that Islam is source of violence. Scope Islam is a vast religion and consists of various facets. The dissertation would aim to study the historical perspective of terrorism, conceptualise terrorism and then determine how religion is used as a motivator for terrorism before studying the Quranic interpretations associated with the violence and finally aim to answer the question Is there a link between Terrorism and Islam. The scope does not cover the causes and motivators of terrorism like cultural conflict, globalisation, and economic disparity e.t.c. but is limited to investigate the general belief that Islam is associated with the terrorism. Methods of Data Collection Data for this research has been collected from the following sources: Books, journals, periodicals and studies on the subject. Authenticated information from selected web sites. A bibliography of the books, periodicals and web sites referred to is appended at the end of text. Organisation Of The Dissertation Topic is intended to be dealt in the sequence enumerated below: Introduction Methodology The Genesis of Terrorism A historical perspective. Conceptualising terrorism Definitions. How religion is used as a motivator for terrorism. Interpretations of Quran and Terrorism. Conclusion Is there a link between Islam and terrorism? CHAPTER III THE GENESIS OF TERRORISM A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Introduction The terrorism is as old as the human civilization. Although the use of violence has been integral to the human beings in the entire process of evolution. Zealots of Judea. The earliest known organization that exhibited aspects of a modern terrorist organization was the Zealots of Judea. Known to the Romans as sicarii, or dagger-men, they carried on an underground campaign of assassination of Roman occupation forces, as well as any Jews they felt had collaborated with the Romans. Eventually, the Zealot revolt became open, and they were finally besieged and committed mass suicide at Masada fortress. The Assassins. The Assassins were the next group to show recognisable characteristics of terrorism, as we know it today. A breakaway faction of Shia Islam called the Nizari Ismalis adopted the tactic of assassination of enemy leaders because the cults limited manpower prevented open combat. Their leader, Hassam-I Sabbah, based the cult in the mountains of Northern Iran. Their tactic of sending a lone assassin to successfully kill a key enemy leader at the certain sacrifice of his own life (the killers waited next to their victims to be killed or captured) inspired fearful awe in their enemies. The Zealots of Judea and the Assassins were forerunners of modern terrorists in aspects of motivation, organisation, targeting, and goals. Although both were ultimate failures, the fact that they are remembered hundreds of years later, demonstrates the deep psychological impact they caused. The period between 14th and 18th century was of relative calm. From the time of the Assassins (late 13th century) to the1700s, terror and barbarism were widely used in warfare and conflict, but key ingredients for terrorism were lacking. Until the rise of the modern nation state after the Treaty of Westphalia[8] in 1648, the sort of central authority and cohesive society that terrorism attempts to influence barely existed. Communications were inadequate and controlled, and the causes that might inspire terrorism (religious schism, insurrection, ethnic strife) typically led to open warfare. By the time kingdoms and principalities became nations, they had sufficient means to enforce their authority and suppress activities such as terrorism. The French Revolution. The French Revolution provided the first uses of the words Terrorist and Terrorism. Use of the word terrorism began in 1795 in reference to the Reign of Terror initiated by the Revolutionary government. The agents of the Committee of Public Safety and the National Convention that enforced the policies of The Terror were referred to as Terrorists. The French Revolution provided an example to future states in oppressing their populations. It also inspired a reaction by royalists and other opponents of the Revolution who employed terrorist tactics such as assassination and intimidation in resistance to the Revolutionary agents. The Parisian mobs played a critical role at key points before, during, and after the Revolution. Such extra-legal activities as killing prominent officials and aristocrats in gruesome spectacles started long before the guillotine was first used. The 19th Century Narodnya Volya. The terrorist group from this period that serves as a model in many ways for what was to come was the Russian Narodnya Volya (Peoples Will). They differed in some ways from modern terrorists, especially in that they would sometimes call off attacks that might endanger individuals other than their intended target. Other than this, they showed many of the traits of terrorism for the first time. These traits included clandestine tactics, cellular organisation, impatience and inability for the task of organising the constituents they claim to represent and a tendency to increase the level of violence as pressures on the group mount. Internationalisation of Terrorism Modern Terrorism. The age of modern terrorism might be said to have begun in 1968 when the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked an El Al airliner en route from Tel Aviv to Rome. While hijackings of airliners had occurred before, this was the first time that the nationality of the carrier (Israeli) and its symbolic value was a specific operational aim. Also a first was the deliberate use of the passengers as hostages for demands made publicly against the Israeli government. The combination of these unique events, added to the international scope of the operation, gained significant media attention. The founder of PFLP, Dr. George Habash observed that the level of coverage was tremendously greater than battles with Israeli soldiers in their previous area of operations. At least the world is talking about us now.[9] Cooperation. Another aspect of this internationalisation is the cooperation between extremist organizations in conducting terrorist operations. Cooperative training between Palestinian groups and European radicals started as early as 1970, and joint operations between the PFLP and the Japanese Red Army (JRA) began in 1974. Since then international terrorist cooperation in training, operations, and support has continued to grow, and continues to this day. Motives range from the ideological, such as the 1980s alliance of the Western European Marxist-oriented groups, to financial, as when the IRA exported its expertise in bomb making as far afield as Colombia. Current State of Terrorism The roots of todays terrorism began to grow in 1990s. The largest act of international terrorism occurred on September 11, 2001 in set of coordinated attacks on the United States of America where Islamic terrorists hijacked civilian airliners and used them to attack the World Trade Center towers in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. After September 11, it is very easy to be nostalgic about the 1990s. In fact, the post Cold War decade was a very chaotic period. Americans were absorbed by domestic issues and lulled by the fact that the Cold War was over[10]. Summary There were two great forces at work through the 1990s. First, there were the forces of integration, including global economic growth, cross-border development, the communications revolution and the spreading of democracy. The power of these forces was captured in the popular phrase, The End of History. Thats what seemed to be happening after the fall of the Berlin Wall and all of the other great events that were affecting world history. But there was also a second set of equally powerful forces-the forces of disintegration-including religious and ethnic conflict, an ever-widening North-South gap, religious fundamentalism (Islamic and otherwise) and terrorism. The power of these forces was captured in the phrase, the Clash of Civilizations. While I disagree with the ultimate conclusion of Samuel Huntington, the author of that phrase, that the clash is inevitable, Huntingtons words nonetheless capture the import of the forces that were producing post-Cold War conflicts. CHAPTER IV CONCEPTUALISING TERRORISM A few terms that are important to the study of violence in Islam are: terrorism, religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism. A discussion of these terms will permit a comprehensive analysis on the way in which the use of violence sanctioned by the Quran and its interpretations amounts to Islamic terrorism. Terrorism Terrorism is a non-political act of aggression in which the extent of violence used is outside the realm of normative behavior[11]. Terrorists use or threaten to use this violence against combatants and non-combatants to achieve political, social, economical or religious change within a given community. These reforms appeal to the terrorists and do not represent popular opinion of the society from which terrorism arises and terrorists are no respecters of borders[12]. Thus Omar Abdullah, the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir says that there are no well defined or internationally accepted criteria to designate an organization as terrorist. However the UN Security Council has, on occasion, adopted resolutions putting in place specific sanctions and measures against individual countries orcertain terrorist organizations[13]. According to Kofi Annan the Ex Secretary General of the United Nations, the manifestations of terrorism are limitless. The only common denominator among different variants of terrorism is the calculated use of deadly violence against civilians[14]. Terrorists are those who violate the right to life, liberty and security[15] vested in each civilian by the UNs Universal Declaration of Human Rights Resolution: 217 A (III). Thus the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) of the United Kingdom defines terrorism as a movement in which terrorists directly challenge the authority of democratically elected governments to manage their countrys affairs peacefully, according to the rule of law and internationally accepted fundamentals of human rights[16], to satisfy their own liking. Religious Terrorism Religious terrorism occurs when the use of terrorism is systematized by an ideological and fanatical interpretation of a religious text. Religious terrorist groups functioning in the absence of this pretext, create junk terrorism[17]. According to Charles Kimball, religious terrorism functions on the basis of five essential principles. These are: means justify the end, holy war, blind obedience, absolute truth claims and the ideal times. Kimball explains that truth claims are essential points in a religion at which divergent interpretations arise[18]. Extreme interpretations of truth claims provoke the ideology upon which religious terrorism is based. However the authentic religious truth claims are never as inflexible and exclusive as zealous adherents insist[19]. The staunch truth claims professed by religious terrorists, allow them to use religious structures and doctrinesalmost like weapons[20] for their movement. In the process, religious convictions that become locked into absolute truths can easily lead people to see themselves as Gods agents. People so emboldened are capable of violent and destructive behaviour in the name of religion[21]. This conviction creates fanatical interpretations and ideologies that give rise to religious terrorism. Nancy Connors Biggos[22], states that foreign observers are unfamiliar with the extreme interpretations of religious terrorists. Thus scholars often dismiss the rhetoric of religious terrorism as one that is devoid of any strategic motivation. This creates a dearth of quantifiable data that can be used to assess religious terrorism. However Biggo explains that the lack of understanding or data cannot dismiss the fact that religious terrorism is systematized by extreme interpretations of a religious text. Therefore Wener Ruf, states, where God was pronounced dead all notions of morality have been turned into nihilism[23]. Islamic Terrorism Islamic terrorism is a movement in which the violence caused by terrorism is derived from and used to preserve extreme interpretations of the Quran, in an Islamic community. An in-depth discussion of the how Islamic terrorism is invoked from the Quran, will be discussed in a separate chapter. However, preliminarily speaking Islamic terrorism exists where there is a controversy over sacred space[24]or a Kuranic tenet has been violated. Participants of this movement call for unquestioned devotion and blind obedience[25] to the word of God in order to ameliorate un-Islamic conditions. Islamic terrorism is itself a controversial phrase, although its usage is widespread throughout the English-speaking world. Ordinary Muslims who have nothing to do with terrorism find it reprehensible because it forces upon them a label simply because they, too, are believers of Islam. In fact, the common Muslim believes that you are making him a racial hate target by using the word Islam with terrorism. Bernard Lewisbelieves that the phrase Islamic terrorism is apt, because although Islam, as a religion is not particularly conducive to terrorism or even tolerant of terrorism. In his own words: Islam has had an essentially political character from its very foundation to the present day. An intimate association between religion and politics, between power and cult, marks a principal distinction between Islam and other religions. In traditional Islam and therefore also in resurgent fundamentalist Islam, God is the sole source of sovereignty. God is the head of the state. The state is Gods state. The army is Gods army. The treasury is Gods treasury, and the enemy, of course, is Gods enemy. CHAPTER V RELIGION AS A MOTIVATOR FOR TERRORISM The overwhelming problem in the world today, everyone knows, is terrorism, where people in the name of religion kill each other, kill others just to go to heaven, and thinking only they will go to heaven. . Introduction. The dynamics whereby religion becomes a motivator for terrorism is complex but highly understandable. What terrorists groups using this dynamic have begun to understand is that most ordinary citizens are not highly interested in politics nor dedicated to working for social change. Many ordinary citizens are however interested in religion as it relates to their personal lives and morals and because of this they can be emotionally manipulated when they learn of social injustices particularly if they view them through the lens of religious rhetoric. This is specifically true in todays world of instantaneous news coverage where it is possible to whip up political and religious outrage over events that are seen to be bordering on religious threshold. This is certainly true in the case of al Qaeda and its loosely affiliated groups within what is now commonly referred to as the global salafi jihadist movement[26]. Religious Brainwash. Following the Afghan war in which Islamic peoples from many nations came together to successfully throw out the Russian infidel, Osama bin Laden and similar groups have successfully managed to continue to widen their global appeal by showcasing social injustices against Muslims. This helps to create within a wide group of otherwise less connected Muslim ethnic groups identification with the victims and with each other as a caring and responsive community for their Muslim brothers. Typically, these groups make use of the human rights abuses occurring within the Israeli/Palestinian and Russian/Chechen conflicts and now also include the occupations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The making of a Terrorist. While instantaneous and repetitive satellite coverage of worldwide events is enough to show injustices and to even create identification with victims sharing similar ethnic or religious backgrounds it is not sufficiently enough to fuel terrorism. However, with the addition of religious rhetoric it is transformed into a potent mix. This transformation is achieved via the following means:- Great Moral Wrong. First the event is presented as a great moral wrong, a threat to religious morality or purity and as one that must be corrected. The message, which is crafted for unhappy persons, social outcasts or those who are already suffering from religious guilt, is framed as one of good and evil and the listener is admonished to be on the side of good. Mind of God. The second tactic in which religion is used to motivate terrorism is convincing the person that it is possible to know the mind of God. For this purpose scriptures are used, and misused, to clearly identify the social wrongs as evil, immoral or impure. Once identified as threats to morality, this tactic is used to take it a step further with additional scriptures that are used to justify violence in order to destroy the evil. In this way religion is co-opted as the means to morally justify violence in the pursuit of social change. While the world debated about the first strike in the Iraq War (to be carried out by the U.S., Great Britain and their coalition forces), moralists all over the world debated about the doctrine of just wars, thereby holding forth about the mind of God on these matters. Overcoming Guilt. Thirdly, because nearly all religions hold human life as sacred and forbid murder the scriptures are used to break down these prohibitions against taking innocent human lives. Islamic rhetoric for example refers to the infidels, nonbelievers, defiled, impure, outsiders, and sinners. In this manner the intended terrorist act in ways that take innocent human lives without suffering guilt for having done so. Common Cause Fourthly, by using religion as a motivator the terrorist group creates a sense of cohesion and belonging to a higher cause. They prey upon individuals who are alienated and disenfranchised. When these individuals find a cause to belong to, especially when it espouses religious rhetoric of brotherhood, love and hope for the future life they can become powerfully motivated to act in behalf of the group simply for the sense of identity.[27] Heroic Martyrdom. The One of the ultimate uses of religion to motivate terrorism is to hold forth a view of the afterlife, promising rewards in the hereafter for sacrificing oneself in the here and now. This is a particularly potent tactic used with those who feel guilty about their actions in this life and uncertain of their standing with God, and with those marginal members of society who suddenly find themselves centered in a group with a purpose. The Muslim interpretation of afterlife while dying for jihad states that the Prophet will be waiting to welcome the martyr with thousands of virgins lined up for his pleasure. Referring to afterlife one martyr also states, I will have God welcome me with open arms. I will be a true hero in the sky.[28] Between the two recent wars in Chechnya (1994-96 and 1999) similar means were used to convince vulnerable Chechen individuals to sign on the new Chechen jihad which began making use of suicide terrorism in 2000. During this time period terrorist sponsored schools used were opened in the capital Grozny which recruited young boys and girls who lost their fathers in the Russian/Chechen conflicts promising their widowed mothers a good education for their sons and daughters. Unknown to their families these vulnerable young students were indoctrinated into militant Islamic ideas foreign to Chechen experiences of Sufi Islam and some became convinced that the price of belonging to higher glory is to be willing to sacrifice oneself for the group. In the words of a hostage who conversed with one of the Chechen terrorists :- He explained to me that while his greatest dream was to continue his education and go to university and that while he wished to live, even more important for him was to die a martyr. He had become totally convinced that martyrdom was his highest calling in life.[29] Conclusion. Religion has always been used as a means of constructing social justice, expiating wrongdoing or sins, and of modulating emotional states. These means however can also be used to manipulate vulnerable individuals into taking social actions that they might otherwise never have considered or consented to take part in. For instance a colleague in Chechnya reports that the children who attended terrorist based schools were taught to rock and chant repeating Koranic verses that invoke jihad, ideas that their masters consider important to instil. This practice can easily make use of inducing a suggestive hypnotic state; a light trance in which susceptible children who have already reason to want to avenge a murdered parent might be induced to do so. People interacting with such persons mentioned that these young terrorists were brainwashed, rocking, singing and praying often, and readily embracing death.[30] CHAPTER VI QURANIC INTERPRETATIONS AND TERRORISM Approximately fourteen hundred years ago, Prophet Muhammad, the last in the line of the prophets of Islam, received revelation from God known as the Quran, which is the Final Testament. He came with a message of peace and reconciliation, mercy and compassion. Yet, ever since the beginning of the call of Islam, its image and that of Muslims has been subject to distortion, misconceptions, and misinterpretations. This chapter aims at establishing the link between Quran and the distortions in its interpretation which has manifested itself in the form of jihad or the holy-war. Quran and Sanction of Violence The Quran permits violence as an act of defence waged to protect the Shariat in an Islamic community. The Shariat can be explained as a system of ordinances outlined in the Quran and Hadis[31] through which God lays down for mankind the rules of conduct[32]. The Shariat is the guidance for all walks of life individual and social, material and moral, economic and political, legal and cultural, national and international[33]. Muslims are advised to closely follow the Shariat to acquire the well being that God has envisioned for the Islamic community. Preservation of the Shariat is an obligation of every able-bodied individual[34]. Oppression, despotism, injustice and criminal abuse of power[35] of the Shariat by Muslims or non-Muslims[36], must be punished. Quran and Jihad The Quran identifies three main kinds of Jihad that can be used for the punishment of oppression and injustice. These are: internal[37], external[38] and inter-communal[39]. The Quran permits the use of violence as an optional method for all three forms of Jihad but it limits the use of violence in internal[40] and external Jihad. It expands on its doctrine of Jihad and violence, mainly in the context of inter-communal conflicts. In these cases, Muslims can individually determine the nature and extent of Jihad based on the freedom of interpretations, and the geopolitical conditions in which the conflict arises. However the most essential prerequisite in the Qurans discourse on violence is that, force should be used only when the Shariat has been violated and needs to be persevered as the very

Monday, August 19, 2019

US Government - Checks And Balances :: Political Science Government Essays

US Government - Checks And Balances "There is no more important function for all of government to define the rights of its citizens." (Norman Dorsen) In this essay I will give a short history of the government in United States of America (U.S.). Then I will describe each of the three branches of government in the U.S. and the relationship between them. In principle, the U.S. is a democratic republic, they govern themselves by choosing their leaders by secret ballot, and these leaders in turn make the rules. Americans started "governing themselves" as a nation on July 4th, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia by representatives of the thirteen British colonies in North America. These states joined together formally in 1781 under a first "constitution," the Articles of Confederation. That loose union of the states was replaced by the Constitution of the U.S. in 1789. This document (amended 26 times) is still the political foundation of the U.S. Being based on a written constitution, the U.S. government is committed in principle to the rule of law. To guarantee the rights of free speech, a free press, freedom of religion etc. the first ten amendments, called the "Bill of Rights" were adopted in 1791. There are three levels of government in the U.S. Local government (city/county), state government, and federal government. Here I will pay most attention to the federal government. Many of the concepts of the U.S. government can be traced to progressive thinkers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, e.g. Locke, Spinoza, Blackstone, and Montesquiueu. Out of some of their thoughts the U.S. government system with the three branches were made: A legislative branch (Congress), an Executive branch (President), and a judicial branch (Supreme Court). The Constitution is most of all a document of checks and balances: among the three branches of the federal government; and between the levels of government, nation and state. The legislative branch (Congress) that has the power to make laws valid for the whole country. Powers like the regulation of taxes, regulation of commerce between the states and with foreign countries, the power to declare war, and the power to impeach the President are some of the other matters the legislative branch have to deal with. Congress has two chambers (or "houses"): the Senate and the House of Representatives ("the house"). The Senate consists of one hundred senators: Two senators from each of the fifty states.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay --

John Keen English 101-003 Amy Borders 14 March 2014 The Media Bias That Affected the 2012 Presidential Election President Barack Obama was re-elected to a second term as President of the United States in November of 2012. When giving his acceptance speech Obama was quick to thank his wife and family, his campaign officials, the voters, and everybody that worked so hard to help him get re-elected. One group left out of this display of gratitude, and perhaps the most influential one, was the mainstream media. The media plays a huge role in how viewers formulate their opinions, which in turn become deciding factors when choosing a President. The mainstream media has a responsibility to present the candidates in an unbiased manner, so that the electorate can make a truly educated decision as to the best candidate for the office at hand. While some may argue that the media presents an unbiased view of each candidate, this is not always the case. When looking back at the 2012 Presidential election, there are several examples where the media coverage aided the candidacy of Barack Obama and hindered the candidacy of Mitt Romney. The media outlets handled the candidates very differently when came to blundering comments. For example, the media came down hard on Romney for his comment about 47% of Americans not voting for him. In a secretly recorded conversation about campaign strategy, Romney made the statement the 47% of voters are dependent upon the government, and they believe that the government should provide them with food, healthcare, jobs, housing, along with whatever else they need. He made the comment that these voters would vote for the current president â€Å"no matter what,† and he said that his job was not to worry ... ...ced a great deal of negative reporting during the 2012 Presidential election, the majority of that reporting was about insignificant matters and came during the Primary stage where he did not face any competition. Once the election became between himself and Mitt Romney, the coverage was overwhelmingly positive toward the President. Opponents argue that the criticism that President Obama received over high gas prices, the bad economy, and national health care were unjustified and presented an unbalanced attack on the Obama Campaign. Factual reporting of current events but where were they when the media was criticizing President George W. Bush? National Healthcare has been a subject of debate since the early Clinton administration In weighing the evidence both for and against a media bias in favor of Barack Obama it is important to look at a variety of evidence. Essay -- John Keen English 101-003 Amy Borders 14 March 2014 The Media Bias That Affected the 2012 Presidential Election President Barack Obama was re-elected to a second term as President of the United States in November of 2012. When giving his acceptance speech Obama was quick to thank his wife and family, his campaign officials, the voters, and everybody that worked so hard to help him get re-elected. One group left out of this display of gratitude, and perhaps the most influential one, was the mainstream media. The media plays a huge role in how viewers formulate their opinions, which in turn become deciding factors when choosing a President. The mainstream media has a responsibility to present the candidates in an unbiased manner, so that the electorate can make a truly educated decision as to the best candidate for the office at hand. While some may argue that the media presents an unbiased view of each candidate, this is not always the case. When looking back at the 2012 Presidential election, there are several examples where the media coverage aided the candidacy of Barack Obama and hindered the candidacy of Mitt Romney. The media outlets handled the candidates very differently when came to blundering comments. For example, the media came down hard on Romney for his comment about 47% of Americans not voting for him. In a secretly recorded conversation about campaign strategy, Romney made the statement the 47% of voters are dependent upon the government, and they believe that the government should provide them with food, healthcare, jobs, housing, along with whatever else they need. He made the comment that these voters would vote for the current president â€Å"no matter what,† and he said that his job was not to worry ... ...ced a great deal of negative reporting during the 2012 Presidential election, the majority of that reporting was about insignificant matters and came during the Primary stage where he did not face any competition. Once the election became between himself and Mitt Romney, the coverage was overwhelmingly positive toward the President. Opponents argue that the criticism that President Obama received over high gas prices, the bad economy, and national health care were unjustified and presented an unbalanced attack on the Obama Campaign. Factual reporting of current events but where were they when the media was criticizing President George W. Bush? National Healthcare has been a subject of debate since the early Clinton administration In weighing the evidence both for and against a media bias in favor of Barack Obama it is important to look at a variety of evidence.

Relating The Odyssey to our Lives :: Homer

Getting somewhere is not just the destination, but even more so the journey. The goals are our destination and obstacle and temptations litter the voyage. Like Odysseus, achieving these goals is not a cinch. Obstacles must be faced or avoided, and temptations should be resisted. Our entire lives we all try to accomplish our own personal goals. Like Odysseus, we all have long-term and short-term goals to realize. In life, we all want something we long for and will work relentlessly until we reach that objective, like Odysseus’ ambition to reach his wife and son in Ithaca. Of course we all have minor, transitory goals such as building a house or finishing an essay. Some instances of Odysseus’ secondary goals are him escaping the Cyclopes and keeping his men from eating the lotuses. Personal goals, however, will manage to be interrupted in one way or another. On our journeys we all must resist, or give into, temptations that may hinder our ascent to our goal. All people give into temptation at least once in their lives. One time that Odysseus gave into temptation was when he listened to the Sirens’ songs. We don’t always collapse into temptation, like when Odysseus wanted so badly to kill the suitors but forced himself to wait for the right time. Another time Odysseus defied temptation was when he refused to reveal himself to the people but ceased expose himself until he felt it was the right time. Temptation is not the only thing to obstruct our expedition. We all face obstacles in our life like Odysseus did. A common obstacle in life is a person that you clash and don’t get along with. A good analogy for this in Odysseus’ quest was when he had to evade the Cyclops. Also, people don’t always evade the people and problems that get in their way, but face them. One case of this is when Odysseus had to confront Antinous. Relating The Odyssey to our Lives :: Homer Getting somewhere is not just the destination, but even more so the journey. The goals are our destination and obstacle and temptations litter the voyage. Like Odysseus, achieving these goals is not a cinch. Obstacles must be faced or avoided, and temptations should be resisted. Our entire lives we all try to accomplish our own personal goals. Like Odysseus, we all have long-term and short-term goals to realize. In life, we all want something we long for and will work relentlessly until we reach that objective, like Odysseus’ ambition to reach his wife and son in Ithaca. Of course we all have minor, transitory goals such as building a house or finishing an essay. Some instances of Odysseus’ secondary goals are him escaping the Cyclopes and keeping his men from eating the lotuses. Personal goals, however, will manage to be interrupted in one way or another. On our journeys we all must resist, or give into, temptations that may hinder our ascent to our goal. All people give into temptation at least once in their lives. One time that Odysseus gave into temptation was when he listened to the Sirens’ songs. We don’t always collapse into temptation, like when Odysseus wanted so badly to kill the suitors but forced himself to wait for the right time. Another time Odysseus defied temptation was when he refused to reveal himself to the people but ceased expose himself until he felt it was the right time. Temptation is not the only thing to obstruct our expedition. We all face obstacles in our life like Odysseus did. A common obstacle in life is a person that you clash and don’t get along with. A good analogy for this in Odysseus’ quest was when he had to evade the Cyclops. Also, people don’t always evade the people and problems that get in their way, but face them. One case of this is when Odysseus had to confront Antinous.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Great Sales People Born or Bred Essay

Great Sales People: Born or Bred Introduction                   Having a well-oiled sales team that can sell a company’s services, reputation, and the brand is the desire of any employer. Asales team is a crucial element that determines customer loyalty to use a company’s product and services over and over. Sales team also plays a role deterring the customers’ choice of which firm to get their money in retune for a satisfying service. It would be erroneous to argue that you cannot improve the personality through training and also illogical to argue that knowledge and skills are inborn that no training or study can enhance it. The controversy on sales success is confined in the falsity that a greater personality can be nourished to make it even better (Forsyth, 2010). Similarly, employers encounter a tough experience training freshmen of the firm’s product and services, to increase their understanding. Such ability to learn about the product relates to the capacity to analyze and learn the minds of clients and improve the power to capture their attention to the products offered by the firm. Sales sector is one critical unit that is directly traceable to the gross output of a firm considering the entire value chain efforts imposed on products and the ultimate user being the customer.                   Just like any other value in the world, the question of personality is a formless, indescribable, insubstantial, and inexpressible ambiguous attribute a sales person could have, but a constructive and definite character of an individual capable of further improvement and through theoretical and practical methods. It is often absurd to stick to the belief that sales persons are entirely gifted insinuating the attributes cannot be acquired by any other means. As Quick (1992) puts it, the idea of purely acquiring the sales skills and knowledge through training is equally dangerous as the â€Å"gift† belief. The history of world achievement by outstanding individuals disapproves these arguments as other have significantly achieved beyond others’ previous achievements by learning new ways of doing things. Sales field is not an exemption especially in today’s dynamic economy where inventions and customized brands are the order of business (Forsyth).                   However, learning about sales is quite expensive and many willing individuals find themselves at the end of the rope before the entire in-service training is finished. Learning by experience is much better than just using past experiences that teaches less or nothing at all. Using personal past experiences is better than using others past experience that makes an individual lag behind by trying to profit from a virtual experience (Johnson, 2000) . It is important to mention that as much as some would learn from experience of others, such a method demands a scientific scrutiny by using facts and figures. Therefore, employers and sale leaders have a duty to spot top sales talents with a strong and commendable background in sales and marketing. Most HR managers possess the view that perfect sales people are born: a person can be trained to perfect the sales skills but the basic drive for success has to exist in a person’s inner being. They have to be aggressive, competitive, and able to handle the hard knocks that come with sales; celebrating and enjoying the passion of the roller-coaster, sales are not exceptional in this field. It is remarkably evident the best sales people have something to prove their achievement: either their career, financially, family or others’ success. A sales professional called Daryl (2013) provides a thought of both aspects of born and bred sale people: in her successful career in financial technology and outsourcing industry, Daryl argues that certain personalities provides themselves to being great sales persons and they only require training to finesse the skills.                   The best known sales people are generally confident do well in dealing with people they meet for the first time, good in team building, dealing with tenacious characters and maintaining acquisitive relationships. These natural abilities when combined with a little training and experience refine their character building great sales persons. Employers are obliged to nature these natural skills, mentoring them and guiding to allow a profitable utilization of the skills in the environment. Those considered as born sellers succeed, but eventually fail for not utilizing the other aspect of breeding. At this level it is right to point that successive selling is achieved by utilizing born sellers’ attributes like confidence, tenacity and passion for promoting a firm’s products and services. Failure is experienced in a case where born attributes have not been bred to dig into customers mind by asking questions to enable them fully understand the kin d of products or service they can derive from a seller. Without training, a customer may perceive the seller as having not fully developed a solid foundation of empathy and trust upon which a client feels should be presented on products and service provision. A sense of equality is offered through questioning a customer about their wants and needs: a feeling of privilege is built upon the process of enquiry creating a mutual satisfaction (Hession, 2001).                   Sellers considered as â€Å"born† have often succeed in their career due to their desire to create a mutual coexistence with their customers, openness, and asking insightful questions aiming to get to the bottom of the matter before the deal is terminated. Therefore, more friendly sellers reassure the customer that their interest are catered for building their trust and understanding driving the customer to even purchase more from the same firm. On the other hand, bred sellers stand a better position to sell or closing the sale due to lack of pushy or selling concern, a different case with â€Å"born† sellers.                   For a person with a desire to excel in sales, they need to top making excuses based on their personality, but start from where they are now. Achieving full potential in this field calls for a positive mindset of learning and progressive development of skills and â€Å"born† attributes that makes greater sales professional. These attributes are only learnt by bold person with the gut to risk their social reputation as they practice it. According to Harvard Business Review (2011), an estimate of 70% of successful sales team has inborn natural instincts that greatly determine their sales career path and success. On the other hand, a 30 percent and below is a group of self made sales persons implying that they learnt from the selling environment without the benefits of natural attributes. More so, the analysis presented a 40 percent of people who enter the sales field without these natural instincts, but later fail or quit. Another 40 percent will per form at an average rate, with the remaining portion performing above the average. It is important to point out that the figures above vary by the type of industry and the nature of products or services sold.                   Based on past studies, the question of discussion should lie on what determines the fate of sales persons without natural traits. It might be simple to mention the obvious factors that lead to success of a sales team like hard work, passion, persistence, empathy, intelligence and integrity, but another set of key factors worth listing are greed, language specialization, modeling the experience, political insight and language power. The most important distinguishing element in the success of a self-made sales person is the language power. More often than not, sales person recite the features and benefits they offer, but finds it had to hold an intelligent conversation about the firm’s daily operations (Bird, 2012). It is paramount that business firms develop their own language to deal with technical issues relating to the daily operation in order to facilitate a mutual comprehensive understanding of meaning of words and terminologies used. A techni cal consist of abbreviations and acronyms used on their products.                   According to Bird (2012), the ability of a sales person to analyze comparable experiences and similar data into expected molds is referred to as modeling of experience. Sales activities involve a continuous consolidation and accumulation of like information from customer interactions and sales calls. From these activities, sales person are able to predict future happenings under similar situations and plan for the right responsive actions. Self- made and successful people stand a better chance of storing, and retrieval of all information that occur during sale cycles and calls. This experience is a better way of learning from experience, by ensuring past mistakes are avoided in future sales activities. A political acumen is another important element in ensuring openness and diverse approach to selling and dealing with customers. Sales is a practice that take s a human nature where, the outcome is determined by people and politics breeding successful sale s team should prioritize on political acumen to effectively determine customers’ motivation and influence to their decision. Greed applies in sales on a different dimension from the normal association with a corrupt character: the term is applied in reference to the desire of a better pay for one’s time. Time is a factor that determines how much a sales person gets at the end of the deals made, and therefore effort should focus on winning as many deals as possible within a limited time. It is the greed that motivates sales person to push hard for a better gain (Bird, 2012). Therefore, a lesser sales person does not possess this trait that act as an inward drive to settle as many deals as they can. Conclusion                   The above variations presents a better opportunity for sales leaders to train their â€Å"born† sellers (considered successful in their own right), by analyzing what a successful and efficient sales force feels, interacts and sounds like considering the strengths and weakness of both types of sellers. According to this analysis, the role of a sales leader includes developing the existing sales team to offer different types of services. Similarly, when recruiting, a leader should identify the candidates with a desire to be nurtured and molded to fit in the effective sales team. A seller needs to be ‘all rounded’, and not only a tradition â€Å"born† seller termed as successful without fully realizing their potential. Many self-made and successive sales persons have learnt to apply their acquired experience a profit5able manner to build their intuition. It is important to understand what counts and spend time on it while navigati ng to powerful decision makers to find a chance to convince them buy from your firm References Bird, T. (2012). Brilliant selling: What the Best Sales People Know, Do and Say. Harlow: Prentice Hall Busines. Forsyth, P. (2010). 100 Great Sales Ideas(New ed) From Leading Companies Around the World. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. Hession, R. (2001). Drive a Great Sales team for Sales Managers Who Want Results. Oxford: How To Books. Johnson, T. (2000). Effective Sales Management,Hhow to Build a Winning Sales Team. Los Altos, Calif: Crisp. Quick, L. T. (1992). Making Your Sales Team #1. New York: AMACOM, American Management. Source document

Friday, August 16, 2019

Tsmg5340 Huawei

TSMG 5340 Wenzhao Li HUAWEI: CISCO’S CHINESE CHALLENGER The explosive growth of mobile Internet, fueled by the technological innovations, has affected every aspect of our lives. Mobile devices such as smart phones and PDA and even smart pets are now being interwoven into the fabric of our lives. The ultimate goal of all these devices is to bring all people into a networked society. Behind all these amazing devices, however, are the efforts of the telecom equipment companies, such as Alcatel, Lucent, 3Com and Cisco.Among all of these companies, there is a Chinese company, named Huawei, gradually being attention by the global telecom industry. For Huawei, its ambition is to catch up with Cisco as a world leader other than a domestic giant, which we know that none Chinese company has ever achieved in an industry as important as telecommunication. In my reading of this issue, trying to comprehensively understand Huawei's situation in venturing into international market, four obser vations stand out: strength of Huawei, weakness of Huawei, Huawei's opportunities and threats faced by Huawei. Strength:Firstly, China’s telecom equipment market is the background of Huawei. China’s telecom industry achieved substantial double-digit growth in 1980s, and surpassed US to become the largest telecom market by the end of 2002. The glooming growth in Chinese market is an initial power of Huawei’s growth. Table 2 in the case shows that as early as 2005, Huawei had achieved the market leader with the share of 13. 5%. And since China was the largest market, Huawei had become the largest domestic telecom equipment company. Secondly, the special company culture and foresight shown by the company make Huawei an extraordinary different company.The military-styled â€Å"Wolf-Pack† corporate culture and relationship with Chinese government are the â€Å"trump cards† of Huawei. The chairman, Zhengfei, admitted that: â€Å"If there had been no gov ernment policy to protect, Huawei would no longer exist†. But this is not the only reason of Huawei’s success. Different from other companies, who following the country’s policy of â€Å"exchanging market for technology†, Huawei put more efforts on research and development, and investing huge punch of money in the future technology (example of investment in 3G).In this way, Huawei becomes more competitive, holding large amounts of cash and patents. As Huawei becoming more and more powerful, they start to build a national recruitment system with exceptionally high pay by Chinese standards, making them an ideal employer of college graduates. R&D investment, patents, high salaries†¦all of these characteristics belonging to western technology powerhouse are replicated by Huawei to its model of corporate management. Thirdly, Huawei was undoubted the largest Chinese telecom equipment manufacturer, with integrated and Omni form products.Weakness: The culture gap between Huawei and other companies may be a headache to the Huawei’s managers. The military-styled wolf-pack corporate culture looks not attractive to the employees overseas, who prefer a workplace with more relax and less stress. Besides this, the closed relationship between Huawei and Chinese government, especially the military, should be considered by the other countries of security issues when they planning to cooperate with Huawei. Opportunities: Huawei’s move in the markets of developing countries has been proved to be successful.Huawei has printed its steps in Russia, South Africa, South America and Europe. The market of USA is an opportunity for Huawei to make their next global expansion. Threats: â€Å"Incumbent Western firms should be very scared of Huawei. Its reputation as a low-cost vendor is only the visible part of the iceberg†, As J. Doineau said, Huawei’s threat to the international telecom equipment suppliers was not to be overlooke d. But in Huawei’s viewpoint, if all the competitors and potential partner regarding them as an intruder from â€Å"Chinese Military†, they would face serious threats due to the culture misunderstanding.On the other hand, the world leaders, like Cisco, could not freely give up their market shares to Huawei. The threat of face to face competition with them is another challenge to Huawei. Huawei began considering international expansion in 1996 when it was looking for diverse sources of growth beyond the Chinese market. The company made its initial overseas moves in the markets of developing countries, to avoid â€Å"head to head competition with its international rivals such as 3Com and Cisco†.Huawei made its first significant international sale to a Russian telecom service provider in 2000, which was quickly followed by Advanced Info Service, Thailand’s largest mobile service provider, and Tele Norte Leste Participacoes, Brazil’s fixed line carrier . What’s more, major contracts won in United Arab Emirates, making UAE the first Arab country with 3G wireless communications. They set up CDMA network in Europe and expanded business in Portugal, Netherlands and GB.Huawei’s success in global expansion cannot live without its competitive advantages comparing to the other companies: low-cost engineering, wolf-pack culture, and government support. As concluded by an industry analyst, Huawei’s threat came not from low-cost manufacturing, but from low-lost engineering. With an inexpensive and highly qualified research and development (R&D) workforce, the company was able to deliver customized, innovative solutions to global enterprises looking to reduce their capital expenditures. The support from the Chinese government is another good news to Huawei.As cited in the case, the company received financial support from the state-owned Chinese Development Bank in the form of a US$10 billion credit facility for Huaweiâ₠¬â„¢s international expansions over five year. We never expect that happening in an US company. Last but not least, the management philosophy â€Å"Wolf-Pack† is regarded as a precious to Huawei. We can imagine that a company believing themselves as a pack of wolves-very confident and aggressive. That is why many incumbents feel scared of Huawei like sheep scaring of wolves. However, the competitive advantages cannot sustain forever.The highly qualified employees cannot satisfy the contemporary salary standards, which are high in China, but comparably low in developed countries. The pressure of the salary expenditure increasing makes a threat to Huawei in global expansion. The news shows that Huawei has recently come under attacks by the US government. The reason why US government did that mostly considers the national security issues, because Huawei has a close guanxi with Chinese military. As stated by Cisco’s CEO John Chambers, â€Å"Network would have to be capabl e of responding to intrusions and viruses before human operators become aware of them.And security will be the most effective and efficient if a common strategy extends through all of a corporation’s wired and mobile networks†. US government is alert to anything related to security. And what looks ironic here is that the words coming from CEO of Cisco, who is mainly competitor of Huawei in US market. With its bountiful political resources, Cisco is considered to be director of attacks. Whether the issue could be resolved is determined by the communications between Huawei and US government, and of course, the local incumbents.